Hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism both are linked to thyroid. The thyroid is a small butterfly-shaped gland present at the base of the neck and located below Adam’s apple. The thyroid gland produces T3 and T4 hormones. The main function of thyroid gland is to control metabolism. Hormones produced by thyroid moves through blood and controls cardiac functions, calorie burn process and many other body activities. Thyroid problems more commonly occur in women than men. Diagnosis of thyroid disorders can be hard sometimes as it is associated with many health problems. Most common thyroid disorders are hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism.
Hypothyroidism: it is a long-term disorder. Underactive thyroid is called hypothyroidism. In this condition, the thyroid gland produces less thyroid hormone. Hypothyroidism is caused by immune system attack on the thyroid gland. Other causes of underactive thyroid can be radiation treatment like cancer, hyperthyroidism treatment, and thyroid removal. Reduced activity of thyroid gland decrease the circulation of thyroid hormone and slow down the metabolic process of the body.
Hyperthyroidism: overactive thyroid is called hyperthyroidism. Enhanced activity of thyroid gland, increase the circulation of thyroid hormone in the blood and speed up metabolic activity of the body. In hyperthyroidism, the thyroid gland produces thyroid hormone more than body’s requirement. It accelerates natural functions of the body.
Difference between hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism
Sign and symptoms:
In hypothyroidism weight gains and in hyperthyroidism weight loss in an unexpected way
Hypothyroidism cause intolerance to cold and hyperthyroidism cause intolerance to heat
Heart rate slow down in hypothyroidism and heart rate become fast and palpitates in hyperthyroidism
Constipation occur in hypothyroidism and diarrhea in hyperthyroidism
In hypothyroidism patient experience fatigue, low energy and sleepiness whereas in hyperthyroidism patient feel hyperactive fatigue
Patient suffer from poor memory, poor concentration, depression in hypothyroidism and irritation, anxiety, nervousness in hyperthyroidism
In hypothyroidism skin become dry, coarse, dry, itchy, lips become purple, hair loss and in hyperthyroidism skin is warm, thin and sweaty, redness in palms, pigmentation
Women experience increased menstrual flow and longer or frequent periods in hypothyroidism whereas irregular or decreased menstrual flow in hyperthyroidism
Puffy face, swelling in hands, legs, eyelids, abdomen in hypothyroidism and swelling in feet, toes, ankles in hyperthyroidism
Patient can feel loss of appetite in hypothyroidism and increased appetite in hyperthyroidism
Hypothyroidism is caused by Hashimoto’s disease or chronic lymphocytic thyroiditis; the excessive amount of iodine in the body, genetics, medication and hyperthyroidism treatment whereas hyperthyroidism is caused by Graves’ disease or toxic diffuse goiter, iodine deficiency and thyroid modules.
Hypothyroidism is treated with synthetic thyroid hormones and iodine supplementation. Hyperthyroidism is treated with anti-thyroid medication to decrease overactive thyroid and beta blockers are used to alleviate symptoms.
Hormone levels are low in hypothyroidism and hormone levels are high in hyperthyroidism
In hypothyroidism, levels of T3 and T4 hormones decrease and TSH increase whereas in hyperthyroidism levels of T3 and T4 hormones increase and TSH decrease
In hyperthyroidism metabolism rate increase more than body needs and in hypothyroidism metabolism rate decrease